Which of the following is an important reason to consume insoluble fiber?

a.    It provides digestible energy.

b.    It provides a source of energy for intestinal bacteria in humans.

c.    It facilitates the removal of solid waste by providing bulk.

d.    It inhibits the passage of stool.

e.    It supplies many water-soluble vitamins.

3.  If an individual receives federal nutrition assistance and nutrition education, and lives near a grocery store, why might he/she still suffer from food insecurity?

a.    Instability in economic or environmental climate

b.    Lack of food availability

c.    Lack of resource access

d.    Lack of utilization knowledge

e.    All of the above factors are resulting in food insecurity.

4.  Why do white breads contain minimal fiber?

a.    The process of refinement removes the bran, which contains most of a grain’s fiber.

b.    The process of refinement removes the endosperm, which contains most of a grain’s fiber.

c.    Gluten inhibits the bioavailability of fiber.

d.    Grains are poor sources of fiber.

e.    Wheat is a poor source of fiber.

5.  Which of the following is NOT a result of glucagon release?

a.    Increased blood glucose concentration

b.    Decreased blood glucose concentration

c.    Increased rate of glycogenolysis

d.    Increased rate of gluconeogenesis

e.    Increased release of glucose from liver

6.  Which of the following pieces of information MUST appear on labels of dietary supplements?

a.    Structure-function claims

b.    Nutrient content claims

c.    Disease prevention claims

d.    Disease treatment claims

e.    Suggested daily dose

7.  Why is it important to avoid consuming dietary supplements with mega-doses of micronutrients?

a.    They may exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level and pose risks of toxicity.

b.    They are more expensive than supplements with lower doses.

c.    They are less effective than supplements with lower doses.

d.    They are not absorbed as well as supplements with lower doses.

e.    They will be readily excreted if consumed in excess of the body’s need.

8.  Which of the following is a/are modifiable risk factor(s) for type 2 diabetes mellitus?

a.    Age greater than 45 years

b.    Family history

c.    Non-Caucasian ethnicity

d.    Low HDL

e.    All of the above are modifiable risk factors.

9.  Which of the following substances helps with digestion and absorption by emulsifying fats?

a.    Salivary amylase

b.    Hydrochloric acid

c.    Bile acids

d.    Pepsin

e.    Trypsin

10.  All of the following are functions of cholesterol EXCEPT:

a.    Precursor to bile salt

b.    Structure of cell membranes

c.    Precursor to hormones

d.    Precursor to vitamin D

e.    Energy source

11.  Heme iron is more ______ than nonheme iron. This means that a higher percentage of heme iron can be absorbed and used by the body.

a.    Competitive

b.    Bioavailable

c.    Essential

d.    Energy efficient

e.    None of the above

12.  All of the following are trace minerals EXCEPT:

a.    Iron

b.    Copper

c.    Calcium

d.    Selenium

e.    Zinc

13.  Which of the following is NOT a function of lipids in the body?

a.    Facilitate absorption of some vitamins

b.    Comprise cell membranes

c.    Store energy in adipose tissue

d.    Provide energy during fasting

e.    Provide energy during short, intense exercise

14.  Which of the following polysaccharides is not digestible?

a.    Glycogen

b.    Fiber

c.    Glucose

d.    Starch

e.    Amylase

15.  ______ blood levels of calcium cause the release of parathyroid hormone, which ______

intestinal absorption of calcium.

a.    High; stimulates

b.    Low; increases

c.    High; decreases

d.    Low; decreases

e.    Moderate; halts

16.  Which of the following is a critical function of water-soluble vitamins?

a.    Promote blood clotting

b.    Act as coenzymes to facilitate chemical reactions

c.    Act as hormones to promote bone formation

d.    Yield energy

e.    All of the above

17.  Which monosaccharides are released and absorbed after digesting milk?

a.    Sucrose, maltose, and lactose

b.    Glucose

c.    Glucose and fructose

d.    Glucose and galactose

e.    Lactose itself is a monosaccharide.

18.  Which of the following statements about triglycerides is true?

a.    They are the most abundant form of lipid in food and the body’s energy stores.

b.    They are components of cell membranes.

c.    They cannot be broken down to release free fatty acids.

d.    They always contain trans bonds.

e.    They always contain double bonds.

19.  Which of the following statements regarding niacin deficiency is true?

a.    It is associated with diets low in fruits and vegetables.

b.    It is associated with corn (maize)-based diets.

c.    It cannot be supplemented with fortified or enriched foods.

d.    It is never fatal.

e.    It may result in beri-beri.

20.  What is the relationship between vitamin B6 and amino acids?

a.    It can be produced from certain essential amino acids.

b.    It can be produced from certain non-essential amino acids.

c.    It facilitates transamination to produce non-essential amino acids.

d.    It prevents the production of neurotransmitters from amino acids.

e.    It is not involved in amino acid synthesis.

21.  Which of the following is/are (a) symptom(s) of toxicity from excessive intake of iron supplements?

a.    Constipation

b.    Nausea

c.    Anemia

d.    Both a and b

e.    All of the above

22.  Although necessary for survival, too many ______ in the diet can lead to high levels of inflammation and high blood pressure.

a.    Trans fatty acids

b.    Omega-6 fatty acids

c.    Omega-3 fatty acids

d.    Essential amino acids

e.    None of the above

23.  The function of ______ is to transport lipids and cholesterol in the blood.

a.    Hemoglobin

b.    Lipoproteins

c.    The liver

d.    Antibodies

e.    The pancreas

24.  Which of the following is NOT a key function of calcium?

a.    Regulate blood pressure

b.    Facilitate muscle contraction

c.    Regulate enzyme activity

d.    Promote blood clotting

e.    All of the above are true

25.  Which of the following statements regarding type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is FALSE?

a.    T1DM accounts for most (about 95% of) cases in the U.S.

b.    T1DM results from impaired insulin production.

c.    T2DM can be controlled or reversed with diet and exercise.

d.    T2DM results from insulin resistance and an impaired ability of cells to remove glucose from the blood.

e.    T1DM was historically called “juvenile-onset diabetes,” while T2DM was historically called “adult-onset diabetes.”

26.  Secretion of parathyroid hormone may increase absorption, release, or synthesis of which of the following?

a.    Calcium

b.    Vitamin D

c.    Phosphorus

d.    Both a and c

e.    All of the above

27.  All of the following are functions of phosphorus EXCEPT:

a.    Component of phospholipids

b.    Bone mineralization

c.    Component of energy transfer molecule

d.    Protein modification

e.    Carrying oxygen in the blood

28.  Too much iron can lead to:

a.    Free radical-mediated damage

b.    Increased susceptibility to infection

c.    Increased risk of heart disease

d.    Both a and b

e.    All of the above

29.  Omega 3 fatty acids are beneficial because they raise ______ levels in the blood and decrease ______ levels.

a.    Triglyceride; HDL

b.    LDL; triglyceride

c.    HDL; LDL

d.    LDL; protein

e.    HDL; hemoglobin

30.  Which of the following is/are (a) function(s) of thiamin?

a.    Help metabolize carbohydrates

b.    Help metabolize some amino acids

c.    Help synthesize DNA and RNA

d.    Both b and c

e.    All of the above

31.  What is the role of vitamin C in iron absorption?

a.    It reduces non-heme iron to enhance its absorption.

b.    It oxidizes non-heme iron to enhance its absorption.

c.    It binds to iron to prevent absorption.

d.    It reduces heme iron to enhance absorption.

e.    It oxidizes heme iron to enhance its absorption.

32.  Which of the following is a reason why someone’s body might produce ketones?

a.    The diet lacks a source of carbohydrates to yield glucose.

b.    The diet lacks a source of fat to yield acetyl CoA.

c.    An obese person is not able to efficiently metabolize glucose, and instead relies on ketone bodies.

d.    Ketone bodies are necessary components of the citric acid cycle.

e.    Producing ketone bodies can spare fatty acids from being metabolized.

33.  Which of the following is NOT a dietary factor that increases risk of cardiovascular disease?

a.    Excess sugar

b.    Excess calories

c.    Trans fat

d.    Moderate alcohol

e.    Sodium

34.  Which of the following functions does NOT involve a prominent role for copper?

a.    Iron metabolism

b.    Connective tissue synthesis

c.    Immune system

d.    Maintenance of heart muscle

e.    Hemochromatosis

35.  Which of the following is a disaccharide?

a.    Starch

b.    Sucrose

c.    Fiber

d.    Glycogen

e.    Fructose

36.  In order to derive energy from glucose, what must happen after glycolysis yields pyruvate?

a.    It must be converted to acetyl CoA to enter the electron transport chain.

b.    It must be converted to acetyl CoA to enter the citric acid cycle.

c.    It must be stored as glycogen.

d.    It must be converted to a triglyceride.

e.    It must be used to break down triglycerides.

37.  Which of the following statements about water-soluble vitamins is FALSE?

a.    The excess amount will be excreted through the urine.

b.    High doses can potentially be toxic.

c.    The human body stores them in tissues such as adipose.

d.    The human body can’t store excess amounts.

e.    The human body can only use a certain amount of these vitamins at a time.

38.  If you have an essential fatty acid deficiency, which of the following might be compromised?

a.    Growth

b.    Skin integrity

c.    Fertility

d.    Structure and function of cell membranes

e.    All of the above

39.  Which of the following foods likely has the lowest glycemic index?

a.    Whole orange

b.    Orange juice

c.    Orange candy

d.    Orange soda

e.    All of the above items have the same glycemic indices.

40.  Which of the following characterizes vitamin C deficiency?

a.    Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death

b.    Microcytic anemia, encephalopathy

c.    Bleeding gums, slow wound healing, poor appetite

d.    Numbness, fatigue

e.    None of the above

41.  Which micronutrient(s) is/are important for blood formation?

a.    Iron

b.    Vitamin B12

c.    Vitamin C

d.    Both a and b

e.    All of the above

42.  Which of the following characteristics of dietary supplements is/are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after they are on the market?

a.    Safety

b.    Advertising

c.    Ingredient accuracy

d.    Both a and c

e.    All of the above

43.  Hydrogenation is the addition of ______ atoms to ______ fats to make them more solid and shelf-stable at room temperature.

a.    Carbon; saturated

b.    Hydrogen; saturated

c.    Carbon; unsaturated

d.    Hydrogen; unsaturated

e.    Oxygen; saturated

44.  Research in the 1970s suggested that consuming saturated fat and cholesterol in the diet led to increased rates of cardiovascular disease. This led the food industry to replace saturated fat with ______.

a.    Trans fat

b.    Fiber

c.    Monounsaturated fat

d.    Essential amino acids

e.    Protein

45.  What is the storage form of fat found in adipose tissue?

a.    Chylomicrons

b.    Triglycerides

c.    Cholesterol

d.    VLDL

e.    Phospholipids

46.  Which statement accurately describes a characteristic of osteoporosis?

a.    Increased risk for active individuals

b.    Increased risk for males

c.    Increased bone density

d.    Increased calcification of bone

e.    Reduced calcium and bone matrix

47.  Folate or folic acid supplementation is especially important for women during pregnancy in order to prevent ______.

a.    Scurvy

b.    Rickets

c.    Pellagra

d.    Neural tube defects

e.    Pneumonia

48.  ______ is/are necessary to prevent megaloblastic (macrocytic) anemia.

a.    Folate

b.    Niacin

c.    Vitamin B12

d.    Vitamin C

e.    Both a and c

49.  Which of the following statements about trace minerals is FALSE?

a.    They are often cofactors to enzymes.

b.    They are important for DNA synthesis.

c.    They do not directly provide energy.

d.    They are not essential in the diet.

e.    They can compete with each other for absorption.

50.  Which of the following federal nutrition programs provides the greatest flexibility in what foods may be purchased and consumed by recipients?

a.    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

b.    Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

c.    National School Lunch Program (NSLP)

d.    Both a and b allow equivalent purchases.

e.    All of the above allow equivalent foods.

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